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Wednesday, 5 June 2013

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USE OF PSYCHOLOGY TO THE TEACHER

  • Wednesday, 5 June 2013
  • Ajit Kumar
  • Educational Psychology helps the teacher in many ways as follows:-
    1. To understand the learner: Educational psychology helps the teacher to understand the learning capacity, interest,motivation, mental status, overt and covert behaviour, and developmental stages including physical, intellectual, social and emotional developments of the children.
    2. To understand the problems of children: Educational psychology helps in understanding the learning problems associated with mental, physical, social and emotional problems of children in the educational process and situation.
    3. To understand the learning process: The teacher knows how to adopt the principles, laws and theories of learning in his teaching-learning process. Various appropriate approaches in learning are understood and implemented in the learning process after learning of Educational psychology.
    4. To understand the developmental characteristics: An individual passes through different developmental stages such as infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Each stage has its own characteristics. Effective instruction according to development stages is helping to mould behaviour of pupil.
    5. To select methods of teaching: Educational psychology helps the teachers to select the appropriate teaching methods in a classroom based on the individual learners and learning environment. It also helps him to develop new techniques and strategies for teaching the heterogeneous group.
    6. To improve quality of teaching: Educational psychology aims at helping the teacher in bringing improvement in quality of teaching.
    7. To create conducive learning environment: Classroom climate includes setting and management which are to be set in a proper way for the learning of the children. Educational psychology helps a teacher in creating such learning environment to the learners in a school.
    8. To make socialization in classroom: Educational psychology helps in developing group dynamics, teamwork, and leadership qualities among the learners.
    9. To maintain discipline: Educational psychology advocates self-discipline through creative and constructive activities. It helps the teacher to tackle the problem of indiscipline.
    10. To identify the special needs children: The special needs children are the children who need adapted learning instructions, adapted learning environment or adapted learning process. They may be physically disabled, intellectually disabled or learning disabled. These children are identified and provided special services for their learning. Educational psychology helps the teacher to identify such children.
    11. To enable teachers for curriculum development: Curriculum should be designed based on the needs and wants of the individual to get accommodated in the present world of development. So, Educational psychology helps the teachers to develop suitable curriculum according to the learners.
    12. To render guidance service: Personal guidance, educational guidance, vocational guidance and social guidance are to be given by the teachers for the life betterment of the children. Educational psychology helps in carrying out such a guidance service to the students.
    13. To know the teacher himself: Educational psychology helps the teacher to understand himself what he is and how he would be in the educational situation. It also helps him to assess his potentials and teaching abilities. The teacher also understands his emotionality, physical comfortableness, sociability, cognitive abilities etc., after studying Educational psychology.
    14. To evaluate the performance: Educational psychology provides the psychological tests to evaluate the learning outcomes of the learner.
    15. To conduct the research: Educational psychology helps him to development research attitude to conduct researches to improves the behaviour of individuals in the educational situation.
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    Monday, 3 June 2013

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    IMPORTANCE OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM

  • Monday, 3 June 2013
  • Ajit Kumar
  • 1. An instructional system is useful in the attachment of the achievement of specific goals; therefore, fulfillment of the goal and after that updating and upgradation can be done to eliminate the drawbacks.

    2. The instructional system is decided and implemented according to human needs and wants.

    3. Importance is given to the satisfaction of needs as the institutional system is based on these needs.

    4. An instructional system is implemented to achieve the motives, aims and goals that are set.

    5. A lot of importance was first given to the formation of an effective educational environment, which has led to the importance of an instructional system being downgraded.

    6. After deciding the goal, the course and syllabus are helpful in the development of a system to achieve these goals.

    7. An instructional system does the work of creating a symbiosis between all the components used in a technique.
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    NEED OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM

  • Ajit Kumar
  • Education is a complex process. Education is a device of developing the nation. The goals of education are achieved through instruction which is also a complex process. Instructional system is useful for the following:

    1. To achieve the desired objectives.

    2. To correlate various units and sub-units.

    3. To implement the right approach.

    4. To determine the sequence of action.

    5. To plan remedial instruction.

    6. To implement proper methodology.

    7. To revise the instruction.

    8. To remove barriers.

    9. To utilize human resources.

    10. To make an analysis of needs and decides the priority of needs.

    11. To improve the quality of system through feedback.
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    Sunday, 2 June 2013

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    COMPONENTS OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM

  • Sunday, 2 June 2013
  • Ajit Kumar
  • It can be seen that there is a close relationship between the teaching-learning process, i.e., educational process and the components of the instructional system. Keeping in mind the educational process, it can be seen that, aims and goals; contents and syllabus; tools used in teaching methods, educational environment and evaluation are components of the instructional system. They have been discussed in detail below.

    Component of an Instructional System:

    1. Aims and Goals: Before implementing any program or plan, it is very important to first decide what is the goal to be achieved. There is a difference between aims and goals. Aims are very broad, while goals can be easily achieved during that stage. Goal identification means to decide the behavioural changes that are expected to take place in the students due to the implementation of an instructional system. Immediate goals are achieved step-wise. One cannot proceed towards the next step till the expected goals are fulfilled. The desired goal can be achieved by the complete evaluation and additional changes that are necessary in the system. Specific goals are achieved through the fulfillment of the short term goals. By fulfilling the specific goal one can proceed towards achieving the aim.
    2. Course and Syllabus: The course and syllabus are helpful in the achievement of the goals decided at the beginning of the educational process. After the syllabus has been finalized contents are the next step that help in achieving the goals therein. The course has elements and sub-elements which are arranged in an ascending order.
    3. Instructional System & Methods, Educational Environment: It is important to create a conducive environment for the achievement of the  desired goals. Nevertheless, the main crux of the instructional systems is in this step. The creation of an environment is essential for achieving the expected goal of the two stages mentioned before, namely, goals and syllabus. For this, it is essential to co-ordinate the human component, surrounding component, instructional techniques, study material and instructional system properly. In Instructional system, at this stage, actual action is taken to achieve the expected goals.
    4. Evaluation: This is the last stage of an Instructional system. In this stage, it is seen how far the expected goals have been achieved. This means that the estimate of the fulfillment of the goal helps in updation. At the end of the year evaluation is done at the school level. by conducting unit test continuously throughout the year, it can be seen how far the expected behavioural changes have occurred.
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